Cameroon has distinct regional cultural, religious, and political traditions as well as ethnic varieties. The division of the country into British- and French-ruled League of Nations mandates after World War I created Anglophone and Francophone regions. The English-speaking region consists of the Southwest and Northwest provinces, where Pidgin English (Wes Cos) is the lingua franca and English is taught in school. The educational system and legal practices derive from those of England. The french-speaking region consists of the remaining eight where French is the lingua franca.
Inhabited by about 280 different ethnic groups with their own cultural form, the Cameroonian culture has become a melting pot of various African ethnic cultures. Music and dance are integral parts of the Cameroonian culture, the two most popular forms being makossa and bikutsi. Traditional art forms include working with wood, stones and clay and are used throughout the country for commercial, decorative and religious purposes. Although a part of the national budget have been kept reserved for cultural activities.
Come to talk of music and dance which are the integral parts of the Cameroonian culture. Almost all occasions and events are accompanied by music. Generally transmitted orally, the general accompaniments are claps or stomping feet. In traditional performances, there is a chorus baking up a soloist, accompanied by traditional instruments like bells, drums, talking drums, flutes, horns, rattles, scrapers, whistles, xylophones and stringed instruments all of which varies from one group to another.
Traditional arts and craft are found to be prevalent all over the country for commercial, decorative and religious purposes. Woodcarvings, sculptures, pottery, bead working are prevalent supported by basket weaving, brass and bronze working, calabash carving and painting, embroidery, and leather working. Bamileke, Bamoum and Tikar are renowned for their wood carvings and sculptures. They are also noted for blue and white royal display cloth, elaborately beaded calabashes, and sculptures that include royal reliquaries. The Bamoum are also known for their bead working and lost-wax bronze sculptures. Pastoral groups such as Fulani and Hausa create art forms that are mostly related to cattle herding. The graphic arts of pastoral groups such as Fulani and Hausa are largely related to cattle herding.
Architecture of Cameroon has no strict pattern. Though traditional Grassfield architecture was mostly of bamboo it has now been replaced by earthen plasters on wooded frames, mud brick, pal thatch and even corrugated iron. Traditional architecture of the northern part is specified by round mud buildings crowned in thatch. Granaries are generally separated by walled compounds. However, all over the country all other forms of housing are gradually being replaced by structures built of concrete bricks, corrugated iron roofs, and iron grillwork.